Social foundations

The inner boundary of the Doughnut represents the social foundation, consisting of 12 basic human needs such as Health, Food, Social Equity, or Education. These categories are internationally agreed minimum social standards and established through the Sustainable Development Goals:

  • Water - Clean, accessible water for all is an essential part of the world we want to live in.
  • Food - for a large part the industrial food system has managed to meet the demands of a growing global population. However, this approach to food production, and the management of food by-products, is endangering biodiversity and human health. It has become clear that this food system is no longer fit for the 21st century and that a new model is required.Ellen MacArthur Foundation
  • Health - Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being at all ages. Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent.W.H.O.
  • Education - Obtaining a quality education is the foundation to improving people's lives and human right recognized by the United Nations.
  • Income & Work - Economic flourishing must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality.
  • Peace & Justice - to address and promote peaceful and inclusive societies, paving the way for the provision of access to justice for all and for building effective, accountable institutions at all levels.
  • Political Voice - through respect of free speech and protection of democracy where people have the authority to choose their governing legislation.
  • Social Equity - is concerned with justice and fairness of social policy. Since the 1960s, the concept of social equity has been used in a variety of institutional contexts.2
  • Gender Equality - is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.
  • Housing - refers to the construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings for the purpose of providing shelter, security and safety.
  • Networks - the social capital and networks people need for effective functioning of social groups.
  • Energy - affordable and acces to clean Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity.

While they are not mutually exclusive, collectively they give a strong foundation for a fair and just world worth living in.