Introduction

Canada has a population of 37 million people which is less than the population of California. It is approximately 3.88 million square miles which makes it the second largest country in the world. It is divided into ten provinces and three territories. Each province and territory has its own government. The capital of Canada is the City of Ottawa where the federal House of Commons and Senate create legislation which applies to the entire country. Each province has its own capital where their legislatures exist and pass laws for their particular province.

Canada is a constitutional democracy however, its constitution is made up of a number of statutes, orders-in-council and judicial decisions which interpret these documents. One of the most significant is The Constitution Act, 1867. This act divides different powers between the federal and provincial governments.

The Constitution Act, 1867 provides the provinces with the power to administer justice in their own provinces. As such, each province will have its own unique court system and administration to carry out the laws of the land. It is because of these procedural differences that lawyers will typically practice within their own province. While the courts are operated by the province, the judges in civil courts are appointed by the federal government.